Single-file Shiny apps

NOTE: This article is deprecated. It is not linked from the website. The two-file article takes its place.

As of version 0.10.2, Shiny supports single-file applications. You no longer need to build separate server.R and ui.R files for your app; you can just create a file called app.R that contains both the server and UI components.


To create a single-file app, create a new directory (for example, newdir/) and place a file called app.R in the directory. To run it, call runApp("newdir").

Your app.R file should call shinyApp() with an appropriate UI object and server function, as demonstrated below:

server <- function(input, output) {
  output$distPlot <- renderPlot({
    hist(rnorm(input$obs), col = 'darkgray', border = 'white')

ui <- fluidPage(
      sliderInput("obs", "Number of observations:", min = 10, max = 500, value = 100)

shinyApp(ui = ui, server = server)

One nice feature about single-file apps is that you can copy and paste the entire app into the R console, which makes it easy to quickly share code for others to experiment with. For example, if you copy and paste the code above into the R command line, it will start a Shiny app.


The shinyApp() function returns an object of class shiny.appobj. When this is returned to the console, it is printed using the print.shiny.appobj() function, which launches a Shiny app from that object.

You can also use a similar technique to create and run files that aren’t named app.R and don’t reside in their own directory. If, for example, you create a file called test.R and have it call shinyApp() at the end, you could then run it from the console with:


When the file is sourced, it returns a shiny.appobj—but by default, the return value from source() isn’t printed. Wrapping it in print() causes Shiny to launch it.

This method is handy for quick experiments, but it lacks some advantages that you get from having an app.R in its own directory. When you do runApp("newdir"), Shiny will monitor the file for changes and reload the app if you reload your browser, which is useful for development. This doesn’t happen when you simply source the file. Also, Shiny Server and expect an app to be in its own directory. So if you want to deploy your app, it should go in its own directory.

If you have questions about this article or would like to discuss ideas presented here, please post on RStudio Community. Our developers monitor these forums and answer questions periodically. See help for more help with all things Shiny.